How to Use MQTT in Python

An OASIS standard is the MQTT messaging protocol for the Internet of Things (IoT). It is an exceedingly lightweight publish/subscribe message transport to bridge remote devices with a small code footprint and low network traffic.

MQTT is used for data exchange between confined devices and server applications. It is ideal for machine-to-machine (M2M) communication since it supports erratic networks, requires little effort from developers to set up, and has shallow bandwidth requirements.

Python is a general-purpose, interpreted programming language. Its design philosophy makes excellent use of significant whitespace and heavily emphasizes code readability. Python was designed by Guido van Rossum and initially made available in 1991.

Its object-oriented methodology and language elements are made to help programmers write clear, understandable code for both small and large projects.


MQTT protocol has an open licensing structure and is standardized by the Organization for the Advancement of Structured Information Standards (OASIS) consortium. The MQTT protocols support the use of the TCP protocol as a transport for device-to-device communication and use the “publish/subscribe” architecture for messaging.

Additionally, you can control the dependability of message delivery by using the MQTT, which enables a range of message quality of service levels. An experimental evaluation of the protocols’ performance and a comparative analysis of the protocol itself are offered.

Devices and Azure IoT Hub device endpoints can communicate through a port. Azure IoT Hub does not comply with all of the MQTT v3.1.1 standard’s behaviors and is not a fully working MQTT broker. To increase the efficiency of the Azure IoT Hub, supported MQTT behavior is used.

Use MQTT in Python

You must follow the below-given steps to use MQTT in Python:

Beginning of the project

Python 3.6 is being used to create and test this project. Numerous improvements and new features are present in the Python 3.6 series, which will benefit MQTT.

Select the MQTT Client

On Python 2.7 or 3. x, the Paho Python Client offers a client class that supports MQTT versions 3.1 and 3.1.1. Additionally, it provides certain assistance functions to make it simple to publish one-time messages to an MQTT server.

Installing the Paho MQTT client using Pip helps the Python program’s management tool called Pip. This utility offers functionality for finding, downloading, installing, and uninstalling Python packages.

Connecting Python to the MQTT broker

The EMQX-provided free public MQTT broker will be used. This service was developed using the EMQX Cloud, an MQTT cloud service. The following is the broker’s access information:

  • Agent:
  • Port number: 1883
  • 8083 for the web socket

Then Add the Paho MQTT client.

Configure the MQTT Broker connection’s parameters. Set the MQTT Broker connection’s IP, port, and subject. The MQTT client id is generated randomly by calling the Python method random. randint at the same time.

The MQTT connect function in writing.

Create the connect callback function as on_connect. This function will be called once the client has been secured, and in it, we can check whether the connection has been successful using RC. Typically, we will develop an MQTT client that will connect to simultaneously.

Publish messages

We first create a while loop. The MQTT client’s function will be configured in this loop to transmit messages to the subject python/MQTT once every second.

Create the on_message in the message callback function. After the client gets messages from the MQTT Broker, this function will be called. We will print the names of the subscribed topics and the messages received in this function.

At last, you will get the code for sending messages and the subscribing code.

Examine the publishing messages

When the message-publishing function is run, we can verify that the client connects and publishes messages correctly.

Also, Run the code for message subscription, and you’ll see that the client connects and successfully gets the posted messages.

As of now, we have successfully finished implementing the connect, publish messages, and subscribe to transmissions between the test client and MQTT broker using the paho-MQTT client to connect to the free public MQTT broker.

Regarding implementing business logic on the device side, Python is superior to high-level languages like C++ or Java. Python Training courses have recently been in high demand among IT professionals. Python can simplify the sense in the code and lower the cost of communicating with the device.


MQTT is an Internet of Things standard developed by OASIS (IoT). It uses a “publish/subscribe” design with little code and little network traffic for messages. For device-to-device communication, the MQTT protocols permit the use of the TCP protocol as a transport. Regarding implementing business logic on the device side, Python is superior to high-level languages like C++ or Java. This loop will configure the MQTT client publish function to send messages to the target Python/MQTT once every second. This function will output the names of the subscribed topics and the received news.

Using the self-service IoT platform, you may also develop profitable Azure IoT Hub products and services. It connects, controls, and keeps track of Internet of Things devices in a single area. is confident that by incorporating IoT technologies, organizations would experience a considerable reduction in burden and complexity.